Home|In Drake's Wake

The Drake Exploration Society

Drake's Last Voyage - The Paris Profiles Of Panama

John Thrower

Introduction

On his world voyage Francis Drake compiled navigational information and personally painted many coastal profiles. We know this from the relation of the Portuguese pilot Nuño de Silva:

He is an adept in painting and has with him a boy, a relation of his, who is a great painter. When they both shut themselves up in his cabin they are always painting.

The boy was of course Drake's young cousin John Drake. Don Francisco de Zarate, who was several days aboard the Golden Hind, testified as to the quality of the profiles:

...pictures of the coast in its exact colours. This I was most grieved to see for each thing is so natually depicted that no one who guides himself according to these paintings can possibly go astray.

Drake's great book containing these profiles, given to the Queen, is now lost; but we can form some idea of his work from the 1595-6 Paris Profiles. Drake ensured that the same care should be taken on his last voyage, but employed a painter and writer for the purpose. This is clear because the records, in the same hand, continue after Drake's death. However, it is very likely that their preparation, up to Folio 16, was closely supervised by Drake himself. He would have remembered the same views from his voyages in the 1570s - maybe he even had some profiles with him that were drawn then. One can almost hear his voice, remembering his earlier experiences, dictating to the writer:

This Rocke is also a marck unto you to know whether ye be yet com to Nombre de Dios or no.

There are the views that Francis Drake saw from the deck of HMS Defiance. They bring the written account to life. Best of all, is to see them from the sea as Susan Jackson, Michael Turner and I did in 1993, 1994 and 1999. The coasts are unchanged: Drake would recognise them today.

We are fortunate indeed that the profiles have survived as a set of 23 folios bound in a book in the Bibliotéque Nationale, Paris - hence their name. Surprisingly, although they are often mentioned and sometimes reproduced, there has not yet been any detailed assessment of the wealth of data they contain. Twenty of the folios depict islands, capes, bays or stretches of coastline in the West Indies and the Spanish Main: Martinique, Dominica, All Saints, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Nevis, St Kitts, St Eustatius, Curaçào, Los Monjes, Cape Concibacoa, Nombre de Dios, Veragua, Escudo de Veragua, Portobelo, the Cartagena coast, the Isle of Pines and the coast of Cuba. The remainder give views of Fuerteventura, Corvo, Flores and the Isles of Scilly.

Seventeen folios were published by Charles Bourel de la Ronciere, Paris 1909. Professor Kenneth Andrews, in his 1972 review of The Last Voyage Of Drake And Hawkins for the Hakluyt Society, included only six folios in the book. The folios were very briefly reviewed, in just one short, general paragraph by D W Waters in the same publication. To quote Andrews, in 1984, "they have never been published in full or adequately discussed in print." This paper attempts a small part of that discussion.

Those of Panama comprise five folios interconnected by the movement of the English fleet, and so form a convenient set for study: Folio 13 as the fleet approached and then arrived at Nombre de Dios; Folio 14 as the fleet left Nombre de Dios and sailed to the west; Folio 15 at Escudo de Veragua Island; Folio 16 concerning the return passage along the coast of Veragua to Portobelo and Folio 17 at Portobelo recording the death of Sir Francis Drake.

Folio 13

Folio 13 (Fig 1) has a coastal profile at the top of Parte of the necke of the lande by Nombre de deos 8. leagues to the weste is Nombre de Deos from this place. Off the point is A rock. The only rock in such a position acting as a navigational mark and posing a hazard along the coast from Punta San Blas to Nombre de Dios is off Punta Culebra (Fig 2) It is about 30 kms or almost 19 miles from Punta Culebra to Nombre de Dios by sea. Therefore, the distance 8 leagues given in the folio is an overestimate. To the eastwardes of this place theare are many Islandes longeste the coast... These are the beautiful San Blas Islands east of Punta San Blas. One hill and The other hill noted on the profile and A rock were clearly identified from the sea in 1994, notwithstanding conditions of poor visibility. The note in the top right hand corner of Folio 13 advises that, To the weste of this Lande 3 leagues of is a lowe pointe and from that pointe you have 5 leagues to Nombre de Deos. The lowe point is probably the low cape to the east of the estuary of the River Cuango (Francisco in Drake's day) near the village of Playa Chiquito. (Fig 2)

In the centre is a profile of a cape of very characteristic shape with three islands, which lies to the westewardes of Nombra de Deos. This is the western shore of the large Bahía San Cristobal which Drake named, Baie of Nombra de Deos on his map below. The high point bearing west from HMS Defiance is named Ciego at Punta Espadon. The islands are the two Islas Los Mogotes off Punta Manzanillo, with the third in the background Isla Tambor, off Isla Grande to the west.

The profile may be compared with a photograph of the cape taken in 1994. (Fig 3) The print has been darkened, better to emphasise the silhouette. The cape is instantly recognisable, so demonstrating the power of the technique for the 16th century seaman: as useful to them as a modern chart today. Drake's painter attempted to show the position of the islands by placing them in a perspective view. He also slightly increased the height of the profile and exaggerated small points to add emphasis.

When we viewed this profile in 1994, it seemed unlikely that the 1596 version had been drawn from a distance of 4 leagues - almost 12 miles. In this case we have 2 compass bearings: west just to the north of the highest point on the profile and west by north through the central island off Punta Manzanillo. The angle between these is 11¼°. Applying this angle seawards from these locations on the modern chart, gives a position offshore of approximately 6.5 - 7.5 nautical miles or about 2½ leagues. This becomes convincing if one extends the range to 4 leagues on the map, keeping the west bearing on the same point - then the west by north bearing would be well out to sea to the north of the islands.

The latitude marked 9° 30' is actually 9° 37' - an excellent measurement for a sea reading at the time.

Drake's platwise map is a remarkably good representation for its time - see Fig 4 for a comparison of this coastline with the modern survey. The prominent point shown on the western cape is Punta Caño Ciego. To the south of that point the 16th century map indicated a more open bay. Today, much sedimentation and mangrove growth has changed the shape of the shoreline here.

Noted below is the large compass variation of 22 degrees west. The writer then rather spoils his fine effort by stating that the latitude is 8 degrees - a curious mistake.

Folio 14

Folio 14 (Fig 5) has a map in the centre which extends Drake's platwise drawing from Parte of the baie of Nombre de Dios past Bastimentos or the weste Cape or pointe of the Baie of Nombre de Dios (Punta Manzanillo) as far as Porto Bello. For its time this is a very creditable representation of the intricate stretch of coastline. Mapping this by means of sea views only, would be extremely difficult. See Figure 6 for comparison with the modern survey. The islands about half way along this part of the coast, are those to the west of Islas Linton, which itself is included in the coastline on Drake's map.

Out to the west, the navigational hazard of Los Farrolones is clearly shown. Portobelo is indicated to bear south from the Farralones, which might be explained by the compass variation aboard the Defiance, as recorded on Folio 13. The hazard is marked today by a red flashing light on its most prominent islet. The Farrolones are about 6 miles to the west of Isla Grande.

At the top of Folio 14 is a coastal profile of Parte of the Lande of Veragua 50 leagues to the westewardes of Nombre de dios terrafirma. Just below the profile it states that, Easte and West the lande ronith at 9 degres 55 minots; an obvious large positive error, as 90 55' would mean that they were well up the coast of today's Costa Rica. A shipboard measurement in bad weather conditions could explain the poor reading. The Defiance which may have anchored here briefly, is shown with the coast bearing South ½° to the west ½ leag of. Very interestingly this profile proves that at least part of the fleet sailed more to the west before returning to anchor at Escudo de Veragua Island - Folio 15 (Fig 9) Escudo is stated to be 45 leagues from Nombre de Dios. Since the coast is said to run east - west, and the fleet would have sought shelter from wind and current, the most likely location is the southern shore of Tobobe bight. (Fig 8) on Peninsular Valiente which, from Escudo, affords the only sheltered anchorage along the whole of this dangerous coast. Another visit to Panama would be required to check this suggestion and to observe the top profile of Folio 14 (but see also below)

At the bottom of the folio there is a profile of Escudo Ilande from a distance of two leagues. The bulk of the island is depicted to the west of a bearing of WNW, so it is clearly a view as the fleet approached from the east. The drawing greatly exaggerates the height of the few distinguishing features. The island viewed from a distance on the surface is very low and flat. Below the profile it is stated to be 2 miles Longe, in 10 degres... Once again, this is a large positive error in latitude measurement - clearly a shipboard measurement affected by rough seas.

The writer then gives another clue as to where the Defiance was anchored off the top profile by stating, This ilande lieth from the maine som 3 Leagues and from the lande heare above mencionid of Veragua 4 leagues to the . sw . and is in the heighte of...

The distance from Escudo to the nearest point on Peninsular Valiente, Punta Cocopluma, is about 3 leagues. Four leagues to the SW to the land in the top profile, where the Defiance was, corrected back for compass variation, would be the position of the south coast of Tobobe bight. The writer omitted to include the latitude of Escudo; presumably this was to be entered later, but his work was not completed.

Folio 15

Folio 15 (Fig 9) titled Escudo Ilande, has a profile of the island at the top. The impression is immediately given that this is a view of the south coast, drawn form the anchorage shown on the chart of the island below. However, this cannot be so, because below the profile is the statement that This parte of the Ilande the Coaste runes NBW and SBE and is 2 miles in length. So, we are probably being shown a view of the west coast which does run approximately in that direction, or, less likely, the east coast which runs about NW to SE. To confuse matters, the length of 2 miles probably refers to the south coast. Once again, an attempt has been made to create a useful profile by greatly exaggerating the height of surface features.

With the newly built oared pinnaces the island could be circumnavigated and a chart made (Fig 9). The Defiance is shown riding at anchor off the SW corner of the island 3 Leagues from shore. This can only mean from the mainland. The rest of the fleet would be lined up off the south coast in shelter. The island is carefully drawn and attractively coloured with little islets painted differently. Some trees are painted to suggest forest cover. The projection from the southeast corner, identified by the artist as Tres in the water, includes the dangerous rocks mentioned in the Hakluyt account.

The 16th century chart may be compared with the modern survey (Figs 10, 11). Large differences are immediately apparent. However, the old chart is a very creditable effort. In many ways it is still a fair guide, and today's island is immediately recognised.

There are two descriptions. One, mostly about the environment, is written within the outline of the island on the chart:

This lande is full of wood and muche freshe water great store of foule to the northe side and great store of fishe it is not inhabited but full of Torrtoisie and Aligarters. At this Ilande Sir Frauncis Dracke did anker and heare buildid 4 pinasis.

The other, concerned with navigational information, appears under the chart:

The discripsion of Escudo with his Shouldes Rocks and Islandes wood and freshe waterars and wateringe placis, with the place of beste anceringe which is on the Letar A. for on that side to the WNW / 3 leagues the mayne or easte Cape of the greate baie of the coaste of the Almirante lieth. The Corante setis to the EBS. The winde manitimes at NW but to the seewardes som 20 or 30 Leagues, you shall have the briste againe I meane the easte windes. The compass varieth in this place 2 pointes to the weste as the NNE sheweth and the deue northe / it is in Latitude 9 degres 20 minots / we buldid in this place 4 pinaces The ilande is in Lengthe 1 league ¼ and in breadth ¾ of a league and to the norther parte of it is verie fulle of ilandes it is Calid Escudo because that in this place to seewardes there is mani times foule wether and then there come to this Ilande for soccure or to ride for Escudo is as moche to saie it is a Shelde or defence this Ilande is 45 leagues from Nombre de Dios.

In spite of all their difficulties, care was taken to draw profiles, make a chart and gather nautical data. Not surprisingly, the place of the best anchorage and observations on the current are correct. Good advice is given about the prevailing wind and as to how to pick up an opposite wind. The dimensions of the island given are a puzzle. On folio 15 the length is given both as 2 miles and 1¼ leagues (3.5 miles). The breadth as ¾ league (about 2.1 miles). The longer dimensions are too great even for diagonal measurement. From West Bay Point along the south coast, excluding Booby Cays, is 2.3 miles, so the first estimate of 2 miles on folio 15 was a good practical guide. In the Hakluyt account, the length 2 leagues and also the distance from the main 9 or 10 leagues are clearly a confusion between miles and leagues which quite often occurred in the 16th century.

The latitude of the island is given as 9° 20', whereas the Admiralty Pilot records 9° 06'. The island lies just above 9° 05' and the 9° 06' line crosses inland as shown in Fig 10 for a 16th century measurement, on land, 9° 20' is reasonable but is only just within the limits of error that Francis Drake achieved on his world voyage. (see discussion)

To obtain shelter, the English fleet would have needed to group fairly close in, perhaps about ½ mile off the south shore, just to the south of 9° 05' and carefully avoiding a shoal there. In poor weather, this manoeuvre would have required very skilled seamanship. They anchored in 12 fathoms: but in this position that depth is not found today. There is a large and shallow "shadow" of the island of depth less than 10m (5.5 fathoms) shown in Fig 12 This is clearly the area sheltered from the sweep of the strong Caribbean counter current. To anchor in 12 fathoms today, a comparable fleet would need to position as much as 2 or more miles offshore and well out of the shelter zone. There seems no reason to doubt the 16th century figure of 12 fathoms; soundings were critically important and constantly practised. So, the shallow area today is another indication of the generally observed build up of silt and sand in the area.

The island was visited during the 1993 expedition. Approached from the west, it presented a low flat profile, with no obvious distinguishing features, apart from the tops of very tall trees inland. Booby Cays, extending from the southeast corner of the island, are a most impressive feature. These are an extension of the golden sandstone of the island broken into islets by erosion due to the strong current. Each remarkable islet is topped by tall trees. They correspond to the description on the 1596 chart, Tres in the watar which is neat and accurate. Surrounded by coral reefs a very strong flow down from the east coast swirls between them to the south.

Folio 16

Folio 16 (Fig 13) has a profile at the top Parte of discripcion or makinge of west coaste or Lande of the greate Baie of Veragua. The great Bay of Veragua is today named the Golfo de los Mosquitos (Fig 7). The profile was seen towards the WNW whilst Ridinge at anaker undar the Escudo. It can only be of Punta Gorda de Tobobe on Peninsula Valiente (Fig 8) with its islands Cayo de Tobobe and Cayo de Platanos, which would have been, as the manuscript states, nearare unto us. The bearings and distance of 6 leagues are reasonably in accord. The latitude measurement 9° 50' shows a large positive error as the actual latitude is around 9° 07'. The writer does not make clear whether he was estimating the latitude at Punta Tobebe or recording the latitude at anchor off Escudo. Unfortunately it was far too hazy to observe Peninsula Valiente from Escudo during our visit in 1993. The writer confirms that they were fully aware of the geography of Peninsula Valiente when he describes it again as, this Lande is parte of the westecoaste of the greate Baie of Veragua or east Coaste of Dominico. Dominico is, presumably an alternative name for the peninsula and waters to its west being Laguna de Chiriqui (Fig 8) which in folio 15 he describes as the greate baie of the Almirante.

The longer profile below, represents a view of the coast as the fleet sailed back towards Portobelo on 26 January 1595. It is from the Rio Chagres which is spelt Chargo or Charge and said to cover some 15 leagues to the west as far as Punta del Arboleta. However, there is no point of that name today. The shugr lofe which riseth far in the Lande maybe a view of the massive Cerro Gaital to the east of Penonome, viewed well across the Isthmus. The highelande at A, named as Michell de Labroda is undoubtedly Sierra Miguel de la Borda, named after the patron saint of sailors, who must often have prayed to him along this dangerous coast. This highland is not so named today, although the river and coastal village still retain the name. If the other highelande at B is the former Sierra Coclet, near today's Coclet del Norte, then the profile as a whole, would seem to extend considerably more than 15 leagues from Rio Chagres. The writer makes some good observations about the, corante heare in this place setith to the NE and the effect of winds upon it. The fleet had little luck with the wind, which had turned against them again at N to NNE on that day. Unfortunately, when off this coast in 1993, we were unable to observe this profile, which was obscured by low cloud.

Folio 17

This folio (Fig 14) is the best known of the whole set, as it has been reproduced many times in books and articles. It records the death of Sir Frauncis Dracke on the 28 Januarie 1595 of the bludie flix righte of the Ilande de Buena Ventura som 6 leagues at see. The island on today's maps is Isla Magote to the north west of Bahia de Buena Ventura.

However, the profile above has been much less discussed: it shewith the firme or runinge of parte of the neck from the weste Cape of Nombre de Dios Caulid Bastimentes untill you com to the Westwarde unto the Ilandes of Laies Minas; that is from Punta Manzanillo westwards. It cannot show the islands near Bahia Las Minas, which are some 20 km to the west. The central portion is a good profile as judged by observation and photography from the sea in 1994. Noted at the entrance to Portobelo are Rock or smale Ilande or farilon, clearly Piedra Salmadina and Isla Drake. The latitude marked 9° 15' is actually 9° 33' - just reasonable for a reading taken at sea.

On this folio, the writer makes the important statement: and all what somever I have heare in this place notid I have notid it planelie with our Englishe compas as it hathe shewid with respecte of the variation. However, this still leaves the reader confused. One supposes that he is recording his bearings direct from the ship's compass but it remains unclear as to whether or not he has applied a correction for variation.

It is unlikely that these observations could have been recorded from a distance of 6 leagues or almost 18 miles out to sea. One could hardly have picked out such detail from that long distance. The island labelled Bastimentos at ENE must be Isla Tambor, north of Isla Grande. At this angle Isla Grande cannot be distinguished from the mainland, which extends behind the island to Punta Manzanillo. The angle between ENE and SE by S for Isla Buenaventura is 67½ degrees. Applying this angle seawards from these two locations, gives a position for the Defiance: 9° 37.8' N, 79° 43.7' W.

Therefore, the ship was lying about 4.9 nautical miles or 5.6 miles off Isla Drake and about 6.1 nautical miles or 7.0 miles off Isla Buenaventura. Thus they were nearer 2 leagues rather than 6 leagues at sea when Sir Francis died. Perhaps this is another example of confusion between miles and leagues which sometimes occurred. (see discussion below) The Farlion at ENE are two islets of the hazard Los Farollones; they bear between E by N and ENE from the position of the Defiance on the modern chart. The painter has attempted a perspective view to indicate the position of the Farollones to the west of Isla Tambor. (see also folio 14)

Discussion

In the Panama folios, there are eight profiles of which five have been viewed: three of these proved to be a good match to the shape of the landform, which was instantly recognisable. The profiles were thus a valuable aid to mariners, "to know where you be." However, in each case, there was some deliberate minor modification, to convey additional information by means of a partial perspective view, usually at the end of the profile.

The two profiles of Escudo de Veragua Island are a special case, where modification of the shape of the landform is extreme. Each has had its width reduced and its height exaggerated, so as to emphasise the few distinguishing features, which would be seen on near approach. This was a practical solution to a problem. An exact profile of Escudo, scaled to fit within the width of the folio page, would not be much more than a low straight line carrying very little useful information. All profiles of Escudo are low and flat, as we saw in 1993. There is another example in the South America Pilot, Vol. 4, p. 236.

Below five of the profiles, is a note of the distance offshore of HMS Defiance during the observation. Although there were, at that time, methods available to measure distances offshore, described by William Bourne in his Regiment of the sea, these were difficult, time-consuming and required ideal conditions. They would not have been undertaken in the circumstances of these few anxious days of the last voyage. Hence, the distances given are estimates, which are notoriously difficult to judge, even for an experienced sailor, since they are critically dependent on weather conditions. Where bearings are given that can be recognised on a modern chart, (folios13, 17), the distances offshore have been shown now to be overestimates. However, where the distance has been measured during a passage, eg from Peninsula Valiente to Escudo Island - three leagues - it is a fair estimate. The separate anonymous account in Hakluyt, grossly exaggerates the same distance, probably by confusion between miles and leagues in an account compiled much later.

The strong sweep of the Caribbean Counter Current, which flows west to east along the north coast of Panama, is well noted and discussed on several folios. Taken together with the prevailing winds, also noted on the folios, the fleet was in some difficulty on the westbound passage across the Greate Baie of Veragua. Sir Thomas Baskerville, in his own separate account, explains this neatly:

"Ran into the bay som 50 leagues wher we found the windes and corante so contrary that had we nott recovered a lytell Ilande the wholl Flete had been Indangerid to have ron ashore, hear we lay som 14 days."

The Lytell Ilande was, of course, Escudo, that is the "shield" of Veragua. The name describes the island's useful role as a protective anchorage for sailing vessels, well noted on folio 15.

"...for Escudo is as moch to saie it is a shelde or defence."

A complete contrast to the 130 mile long dangerous lee shore of Veragua, with its threatening swells and offshore rocks. Sir Thomas does not mention the shelter obtained by the Defiance and perhaps some other ships, at Tobobe on Peninsula Valiente, before reaching Escudo, as revealed by folio 14. However, it is confirmed by a Spanish map: Carta Maritima Del Reyno De Tierra Firme U Castilla Del Oro, by Don Juan López, 1785. This names a Bahía Francisco Drake on the coast of Veragua, which must be at Tobobe, the only shelter on this part of the coast.

The six latitude readings in the folios are summarised in the table:

Folio Location Measured Actual Minutes of Difference Comment
13 Bahía San Cristobal 9° 30' 9° 37' -7' sea reading good conditions
14 Peninsula Valiente at Tobobe 9° 55' 90 04' +51' shelteredsea reading
14 Escudo Island 10° 00' 9° 06' +54' sea reading, approaching in rough weather
15 Escudo Island 9° 20' 9° 06' +14' likely measured on land
16 Peninsula Valiente at Punta Tobobe 9° 50' 9° 07' +43 reading anchored off Escudo
17 off Portobelo 9° 15' 9° 33' -18' sea reading "6 leagues off"

Raymond Aker, in 1978, reviewed Drake's latitude readings made on his world voyage, as published in The World Encompassed, 1628. Aker found that when the readings were likely measured on land, they varied from modern values by an average of nine minutes. Where readings were recorded at sea, the average discrepancy was twenty-five minutes. Brian Kelleher, in 1997, by a statistical analysis of the same readings, found the standard deviation for land and sea readings to be 11.5 and nineteen minutes respectively. Apart from one in folio 13, the Panama Profile readings are well below the standard that Drake achieved on his world voyage: some sixteen years earlier! However, in 1596, Drake was not personally taking these readings. Furthermore, the fleet was experiencing bad weather!

The folios, together with the separate accounts of the last voyage, provide some valuable hydrographical data. This helps to show the extent of shorelines and depth changes, along and off this coast, over the last four centuries. Most striking is the revelation of the large build up of silt and sand around Escudo Island, which has undoubtedly, also led to changes to the island's shoreline. Drake's "platwise" map of the Baie of Nombre de Deos (Folio 13, fig.1), being today's large Bahía San Cristobal chart, reveals large changes in its southwest corner. Within Bahía San Cristobal is the famous round Bahía de Nombre de Dios. Drake's careful map of this bay, is part of the evidence, for the massive silting, which has resulted in a northward shift of the coastline by at least 130 metres. That much of this has occurred in the last century is revealed by the map of Nombre de Dios bay drawn in 1914 (see The Drake Broadside, Jan 2003, p.256). All this matches other data from river estuaries. For example, at Rio Belén, Colombus in 1502 enjoyed a seven foot depth over the bar; the present clearance is only three feet. We noticed a similar limited clearance at Rio Concepción, in 1993 (see Fig. 7).

Conclusion

To analyse is not to criticise. Over a very brief period, in December 1595 - January 1596, the makings of a pilot book for a good part of the north coast of today's Panama had been achieved. For its time, the work was of high standard. However, it was only a small part of the expedition. If more time had been available to complete this work, it would have been well in advance of much later Spanish surveys conducted in the 17th and 18th centuries. Some of these, from the Archives of Seville, were exhibited at the Canal Museum in Panama City, May - June 2001.

There is an air of sadness around these particular folios. All those involved, realised that the expedition had failed. There was much disease and death. Perhaps Sir Francis Drake walked the beach at Escudo Island for a while, but as he reflected, he would not have known that his old second-in-command from 1572 / 3, John Oxenham, had been there before him in 1576.

Back on the Defiance, Sir Francis became ill with the "bludie flux." This disease was well known to those who sailed in these waters later. William Dampier in 1681 remembered Drake's illness:

"We past by Scuda, a small island, where 'tis said Sir Francis Drake's Bowels were buryd."

The profile at the top of folio 16 (Fig. 13) of Peninsula Valiente, would have been Drake's final coastal view of Tierra Firme, before he kept to his cabin for the last time.

Bibliography & Sources

Raymond Aker Francis Drake At Drakes Bay: A Summary Of Evidence
California, 1978.
Kenneth Andrews, (Ed) The Last Voyage Of Drake And Hawkins Hakluyt Society, Series 2, Vol. 142
Cambridge, 1972
Kenneth Andrews, The Coastal Profiles Relating To Drake's Last Voyage
Talk given to Hakluyt Society, 1984
William Dampier A New Voyage Aound The World Argonaut Edition
London, 1927
Richard Hakluyt Principal Navigations Everyman Edition, Vol. 7
London, 1907
Brian Kelleher Drake's Bay California
1997
Zelia Nuttall (Ed) New Light On Drake Hakluyt Society Series 2, Vol. 34
Cambridge, 1914
John Thrower The Island Of Escudo De Veragua - Haunt Of Pirates And Privateers
Dorset, 2001
Michael Turner In Drake's Wake
Paul Mould Publishing, Boston, UK, 2006
Nancy & Thomas Zydler The Panama Guide - A Cruising Guide To The Isthmus
Brookfield, Wisconsin, 1996
Escudo De Veragua Panama 1: 50,000 Sheet 3843 II
Defence Mapping Agency, Washington, 1965
Escudo De Veragua US Chart 26070
Defence Mapping Agency, Washington, 1996
The Paris Profiles Manuscripts Anglais, 51
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris
Portobelo Panama 1: 50,000 Sheet 4244
Defence Mapping Agency, Washington, 1987
El Reino De Tierra Firme Testimonios Documentales Del Panama Hispana
Panama 2001

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